Aim and Objectives
The research aimed to gather baseline data on the attitudes of the population to sociopolitical issues in Georgia. This study is considered to be a basis for further researches on the related topics.
The research objectives are as follows:
- Population's assessment of the economic situation in Georgia and their view of the desirable economic policy;
- Population's assessment of the political situation in Georgia and its future prospects;
- Population's assessment of the successes and failures of the government and opposition;
- Outcomes of 2012 Parliamentary Elections as envisioned by the population of Georgia;
- Population's assessment of the role of mass media in reviewing political issues and influencing political views of the constituency;
- Population's assessment of the role of church and its involvement in political affairs;
- Population's assessment of the foreign policy of Georgia, particularly its relations with the West and Russia, as well as the opportunities to balance these relations.
The survey research was conducted on 1-20 February, 2012.
The target group consists of the adult population of Georgia (18+), except for the occupied regions of the country.
The research is based on the 2010 Census data available at National Statistics Office of Georgia (GEOSTAT). According to these data, the population of Georgia is categorized by region, settlement type and settlement size.
Due to the research requirement to maintain high accuracy and precision, the sample size was defined as consisting of 8463 respondents. The questionnaires were distributed in the strata in accordance with the population size. The response rate makes 81% that is 6839 completed standardized interviews.
Sampling error does not exceed 1.5% within the country, 4% - in Tbilisi and 5% - in each region, with 95% confidence interval.
The research is based on multi-stage cluster sampling, which guarantees representativeness of the results both on the country and regional levels. On the first stage a list of small territorial units, particularly 365 electoral units (clusters), was produced, distributed among 13 geographical units (strata): Tbilisi, Tbilisi Agglomeration, Kakheti, Shida Kartli, Kvemo Kartli, Samtskhe, Javakheti, Imereti, Adjara, Guria, Samegrelo, Eastern mountainous regions and Western mountainous regions.
Respective clusters - electoral units - were selected based on probability sampling in each region (strata). The clusters were selected according to their size - the number of consisting people (PPS - Probability Proportional to Size). The secondary unit of sampling is a household. The households were selected based on the method of "random wanderings." The final unit of sampling is a respondent. To select the respondents within a household the Kish Grid was applied.
Confidentiality of the Research
Confidentiality of the research is protected by the Law of Georgia on Statistics, according to which it is banned to distribute the gathered information outside a group of researchers without a respondent's permission.
Interviewers' and Filed Supervisors' Training
8 field supervisors and 194 interviewers were involved in the data collection. In order to minimize the interviewer effect, each interviewer was allowed to conduct the research in no more than three electoral units. Before the fieldwork started, 10 trainings were held for the supervisors and interviewers.
The interviewers were provided with firm instructions regarding the household and respondent selection criteria. They were not allowed to substitute a household or an individual. In order to fill a questionnaire, an interviewer was eligible to visit each selected household three times. An outcome of each visit was indicated in an interviewer form and inserted in the database.
An interviewer was eligible to visit a household for the second or third time in case the first visit was unsuccessful due to the fact that:
- No one was at home;
- Adult household member was not at home;
- Selected respondent was not at home;
- An interview was rescheduled.
Reasons for Non-Response
Out of 8463 attempts 6839 (81%) interviews were completed. It is noteworthy that non-response is characterized by obvious regional specifics: The lowest response rate is identified in Tbilisi (48%) and Kvemo Kartli (62%), while the highest one - in Samegrelo (97%), Samtskhe, Adjara and Western mountainous regions (94% in each region).
The reasons for non-response vary according to the regions as well. Two most often encountered ones in Tbilisi are as follows: 1. Refusal to participate in the research (28%) and 2. No one was at home by the time of an interviewer's visit (14%). 10% of non-response in Tbilisi Agglomeration is caused by refusal to participate in the research, while 23% of non-response in Kvemo Kartli is cause by Azerbaijani-language populations' inability to speak the Georgian or Russian languages.
Data Entry, Cleaning, Weighing, and Statistical Analysis
The completed questionnaires were entered into the SPSS database for further processing. Once entered into the SPSS format, the data were cleaned to correct the following types of errors: question skip error, entry error, data omissions and the logical variable control. The data were weighed to aggregate the results. In the end, the survey data were statistically analyzed.
This research represents the most large-scale survey studying the attitudes of the population to sociopolitical issues in Georgia that can make a certain point of departure for further comparative researches. In the light of the political changes occurring after October 1, 2012, it provides a proper basis for tracing the citizens' attitudes in dynamics. Due to the CSS policy to support the maximal accessibility of information, the database is open for the local and international usage.